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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2021
Volume 27 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-86

Online since Tuesday, March 9, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Recommendations of the laparoscopic surgery society of Nigeria on the conduct of minimal access surgeries during and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria Highly accessed article p. 1
Adewale Oluseye Adisa, Olanrewaju Samuel Balogun, Adedapo Osinowo, Y'au Abubakar Gagarawa, Emeka Ray-Offor, Olatunbosun Ayokunle Oke, Akinoso Olujimi Coker, Christopher O Bode, Laparoscopic Surgery Society of Nigeria (LASSON)
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_68_20  
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has affected surgical practice worldwide. Laparoscopic procedures utilizing gas for pneumoperitoneum require specific consideration. Method: A panel of experts of the Laparoscopic Surgery Society of Nigeria (LASSON) was constituted to draft recommendations on the conduct of minimal access surgical (MAS) procedures during and after the pandemic in Nigeria. Results: The Society strongly believes that laparoscopy and other (MAS) procedures can be safely performed during and after the current COVID-19 pandemic if appropriate safety measures are adhered to. The Society therefore makes the following recommendations for all units performing MAS in Nigeria: (1) Design clear cut measures to navigate the pandemic in each hospital. (2) Triage surgical services and procedures. (3) Encourage screening and testing of all patients (4) Provide adequate patient communication and consenting (5) Ensure compulsory use of Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) (6) Minimize preoperative and intraoperative personnel (7) Envisage postoperative respiratory challenges and make adequate preparation for respiratory support: (8) Make specific considerations for the confirmed COVID 19 positive patients:(9) Private facilities offering MAS and endoscopic procedures should take special measures during the pandemic (10) Know your limits. Conclusion: The Society encourages all MAS practitioners to adhere to these recommendations.
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The role of antibiotic prophylaxis in lichtenstein repair of primary inguinal hernia: A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial p. 5
Sudhir Kumar Jain, Tariq Hameed, Dhruv Jain, Mohak Singh, Adiba Nizam
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_52_19  
Objective: The objective is to study the role of antibiotic prophylaxis, if any, in the prevention of wound infection after open mesh repair of primary inguinal hernias. Materials and Methods: Patients coming to outpatient department for open mesh repair of inguinal hernia were randomized into the placebo group and antibiotic group, a total of 150 patients were enrolled in the study. Follow-up was done up to 1 month to look for any evidence of surgical site infection using the criteria of Centers for Disease Control on wound infection. Results: Twelve patients in the antibiotic group and nine patients in the placebo group were found to have evidence of surgical site infection. This difference was found to be insignificant with P = 0.14. Three patients in the placebo group developed deep surgical site infection but on analysis, this difference was also found to be insignificant with P = 0.122.None of these patients required mesh removal. Conclusion: The result of the present study suggests that the use of prophylactic antibiotics during mesh repair of primary inguinal hernias does not give any extra protection from infections. Multicenter meta-analysis is required to give definite guidelines regarding the use of prophylactic antibiotics.
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Developing a low-resource approach to trauma patient care - findings from a nigerian trauma registry p. 9
Timothy E Nottidge, Bolanle A Nottidge, Ifiok C Udomesiet, Enoette E Uduehe
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_67_19  
Background: Trauma is a worldwide problem that results in significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Objective: This study looks at the demography of trauma from data abstracted from a Nigerian trauma registry and considers the peculiarities of a low-resource setting from this perspective. Methods: Trauma registry data from January 2013 to June 2014 were analyzed. Results: A total of 542 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 33.43 ± 12.79 years; the median time from injury to arrival at the hospital was 3 h (interquartile range IQR 1 – 5.1 h); three-quarters of the patients sustained their injuries on the road-tricycles were rarely involved in road traffic injuries (RTIs) (6.9% of RTIs) but were used in transporting a third of the patients whose data on means of transportation were captured. There were 15 (2.7%) deaths in the first 24 h period postinjury covered by the study – 13 (86.7%) of these patients had head-and-neck injury. About half of the assault injury (50.5%) was from persons known to the victim. The shock indices suggested that a majority of the patients were not at a high risk of mortality. Conclusion: Most of the trauma patients at our hospital were in low- to middle-income categories. The median time to arrival of injured patients was 3 h (IQR 1 – 6 h). Most injuries occurred on the road because of RTIs. The involvement of tricycles in accidents was uncommon, but they were used fairly commonly by lay responders in transporting the injured victim to hospital. A high proportion of assailants were known to the victim. The use of trauma registries provides essential data for prioritizing limited resources and can guide a contextualized approach to reducing trauma and improving trauma patient care.
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Outcomes of management of patients with acute mesenteric ischemia: A prospective study Highly accessed article p. 16
Meghraj Kundan, Hethu Chebrolu, Chetan Muniswamppa, Niranjan Kumar, Chintamani, Vinayak Varma
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_54_20  
Introduction: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is the sudden onset of small intestinal hypoperfusion, which can be due to reduction or cessation of arterial inflow. It can be embolic or thrombotic. AMI is a potentially fatal vascular emergency, with overall mortality of 60%–80%. The present study was designed to study presentation, risk factors, and various outcomes of AMI patients, who were treated in the tertiary hospital. Methodology: All patients with features suggestive of AMI were taken in study. All patients underwent explorative laparotomy with exteriorization of bowel after initial resuscitation. Postoperatively, refeeding enteroclysis was done. Observation and Results: The total mortality rate was 62.50%. In patients with functional bowel length of 1 foot, 90.90% patients died. In patients with functional bowel length of 5–6 feet, only 12.50% died. It was observed that the mortality rate was more in the age group of 50–59 years with functional bowel length of 1 foot or <1 foot. Refeeding enteroclysis is an effective technique to use distal bowel. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen more suggestive of this pathology. Conclusions: A strong clinical suspicion and an aggressive approach should be considered in dealing with this condition because the outcome mainly depends on rapid diagnosis and treatment. With understanding of the pathogenesis of AMI and the better utilization of available radiological investigations, an improved outcome can be achieved. Mortality rates with refeeding enteroclysis are comparable with that of bowel anastomosis. This condition needs future research.
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Correlation between body mass index and gleason score in men with prostate cancer in Southeastern Nigeria Highly accessed article p. 22
Uchenna Victor Nwadi, Alexander Maduaburochukwu Ekwunife Nwofor, Chidi Kingsley Oranusi, Jideofor Chukwuma Orakwe, Emmanuel Ahuizechukwu Obiesie, Timothy Uzoma Mbaeri, Joseph Amaoge Abiahu, Okechukwu Obiora Mbonu
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_66_20  
Introduction: Prostate cancer has an increasing global burden. The clinical course varies from an indolent disease to a rapidly aggressive cancer. It is associated with higher mortality in less developed nations due to late presentation. The Gleason scoring system for prostatic adenocarcinoma has prognostic implications in diagnosed cases. Obesity has been associated with the evolution of many cancers including prostate cancer. There are conflicting reports on the relationship between obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), and prostate cancer aggressiveness, as measured by Gleason score. This study is aimed to determine if a correlation exists between BMI and Gleason score in men with prostate cancer. Methodology: This was a prospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional study involving consecutive patients with prostate cancer. Clinical evaluation including anthropometry, digital rectal examination, and relevant investigations were done for each patient and data collected with pro forma. This was followed by prostate needle biopsy and those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate had their Gleason grades and scores obtained. Data were analyzed statistically using Spearman Correlation. Results: The mean age of the patients was 69.54 ± 8.61 years (range 47–83 years). The BMI ranged from 16.98 to 36.45 kg/m2, with a mean of 27.03 ± 5.03 kg/m2. Twenty-six of the patients (36.1%) were overweight and 34.7% were obese. The mean total prostate-specific antigen was 118.65 ± 84.43 ng/ml, with a range of 31–406 ng/ml. The modal Gleason score was 9 with a range of 4–10. There was a strong positive correlation between BMI and Gleason score (r = 0.817, P = 0.0003). Conclusion: The BMI of patients with prostate cancer correlated positively with their Gleason score.
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Treatment and outcomes of early and operable recurrent cervical cancer: A prospective study p. 28
Nikhil Mehta, Sanjay M Desai, Vinod Dhakad, Dhruv Patel, Elroy Saldanha
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_14_20  
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes, survival, patterns of recurrence, and morbidity in both early and recurrent operable cervical cancer patients following radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and adjuvant radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective analysis of 55 patients of stage IA–IIA and recurrent operable cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy from 2014 to 2017. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), morbidity, and mortality rates were the end points of this study. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan–Meir method. Results: The median age of the study group was 45 years (range 18–68 years). The most common presentation was stage IB2 disease in 34.5% of patients. Fifty (90%) patients had squamous histology, whereas 5 (9.1%) had adenocarcinoma. Upfront radical hysterectomy was performed in 90.9% of patients, whereas 9.1% underwent surgery for recurrent cervical cancer. The most common indication for adjuvant radiotherapy was lymph node involvement, followed by parametrium involvement in 20% and 13% patients, respectively. Median follow-up period was 48 months (range 6–60 months). The OS and DFS rates were 85.0% and 81.8%, respectively. The most frequent complication encountered was paralytic ileus in 4 (7.2%) patients. Conclusion: Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for early cervical cancer has a favorable survival outcome with acceptable long-term morbidity.
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Pattern of ocular involvement in midface injuries seen at a tertiary care hospital in northern Nigeria p. 33
Benjamin Fomete, Ezekiel Taiwo Adebayo, Rowlan Agbara, Daniel Otasowie Osunde, Emmanuel R Abah
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_21_20  
Aim: The aim of the study was to report the etiology, pattern, and spectrum of ocular injuries in patients with maxillofacial injuries seen at a tertiary care hospital in northern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective evaluation of the etiology, spectrum, and treatment of ocular injures seen in patients with midfacial fractures, who presented at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria, a tertiary care hospital in northern Nigeria. Cases were seen at the oral and maxillofacial clinic for those presenting with midfacial fractures, whereas those presenting with ocular injuries due to midfacial injuries were referred from the ophthalmology department. Data were collected on their demographics, etiology of injuries, body part(s) involved, and treatment. Results: A total of 256 patients had midfacial injuries during the period, of which 219 patients had 357 associated ocular injuries. The age range was between 3 and 76 years. There were more males (83.8%) than females (16.2%), giving a male-to-female ratio of 5.2:1; the 21–30 years' age bracket was most frequently affected (38.4%). The predominant etiology of injuries was road traffic accidents (RTAs) (90.1%), followed by assault (4.9%). Zygomatic complex fractures (38.6%) and orbital wall fractures (24.7%) were the common midfacial injuries. There were 357 ocular injuries, giving a patient: injury ratio of 1:1.6, with subconjunctival hemorrhage (32.5%) and ruptured globe (20.0%) being common. Treatments performed were reduction and immobilization of midfacial fractures plus evisceration (32.0%), followed by reduction and immobilization of fractures alone (23.9%) and reduction and immobilization plus grafting of soft tissues (21.2%). Conclusion: Ocular injuries are quite common in patients with midfacial injuries, with a ratio of 1.6:1. RTA was the most common etiology, with zygomatic complex fractures as the most common midfacial injury. Subconjunctival hemorrhage was the most common ocular injury manifestation, with young adults (21–30 years of age) being most affected. Treatment often involved reduction and immobilization of midface fractures with evisceration and grafting of ocular tissues.
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Management of thyroglossal cyst in adults: A single-institution experience p. 38
Chinedu Udochukwu Ndegbu, Olalekan Olasehinde, Adekunle Adeyemo, Olusegun I Alatise, Yemisi B Amusa
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_25_20  
Objectives: Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) is the most common congenital anterior neck mass in clinical practice. Due to its congenital origin, presentation in adulthood is uncommon with only 7% of cases presenting in this age group. Data are therefore limited on the management of TDC in adults, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the pattern of the presentation and treatment outcomes, following the management of TDC in a series of adults in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective review of all adult patients with TDCs over a 5-year period was carried out. Sociodemographic data, operative details, and postoperative outcomes were obtained and presented as descriptive statistics. Results: Seven adult patients, including five males and two females, were managed during the period. Their ages ranged from 19 to 60 years, with a mean of 37 ± 16.4 years. All the patients presented with anterior neck swellings which had been present for a median duration of 3 years. Cysts were located in the infrahyoid position in all instances, and all had Sistrunk operation over a mean operative time of 78 ± 16 min. There were no intraoperative complications. The mean duration of the postoperative stay was 2 days. There was no recurrence after a median follow-up period of 15 months. Conclusion: This study highlights the rarity of TDC in adults and describes a single institution's experience with the management of adult cases of TDC using the classical Sistrunk operation.
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Peroneus longus tendon autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a safe and effective alternative in nonathletic patients p. 42
Sachin Joshi, Utsav C Shetty, MD Salim, Naveen Meena, R Shiva Kumar, Varush K V Rao
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_22_20  
Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common injury which has been conventionally managed by various graft reconstruction using bone patellar tendon bone, or quadruple hamstring autograft, to name a few. However, all these grafts are associated with many complications. Lately, peroneus longus tendon (PLT) autograft has shown promising results in this field, although there is still a dearth of data on its use. We, therefore, aimed at carrying out a study to evaluate the functional outcome and knee stability results of ACL reconstruction using PLT graft. Patients and Methods: Patients with a completely torn ACL were included in the study. The PLT was harvested, and graft length, thickness, and harvesting time were noted intraoperatively. Knee stability and functional scores were evaluated clinically and using Lachman test (primarily) and KT-2000 arthrometer and subjectively with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score at 6, 12, and 24 months (secondary outcome) postoperatively. Ankle scores were also recorded by making use of American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS)–Hindfoot Scale. Results: Forty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. The graft harvest time was 7.4 min (5–9 min). The mean thickness of the graft on doubling was 7.9 mm (7–9 mm). Ninety-six percent of the patients were satisfied with their results of the knee surgery, and 95% of the patients had no complaints of ankle joint. The mean IKDC score postoperatively was 78.16 ± 6.23, and the mean AOFAS score was 98.4 ± 4.1. None of the patients had any neurovascular deficit. Conclusion: ACL reconstruction using PLT graft yields a good functional score (IKDC, KT-2000 arthrometer) even at 2-year follow-up. It is a safe and effective autograft option for ACL reconstruction.
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An audit of surgical neck explorations for penetrating neck injuries in northwestern Nigeria: Experience from a teaching hospital p. 48
Abdulrazak Ajiya, Iliyasu Yunusa Shuaibu, Hamza Manir Anka
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_63_20  
Background: Penetrating neck injury is a major trauma mechanism present in about 5%–10% of trauma patients with an estimated mortality of 3%–10%. The management of these injuries is dependent on the anatomical level of injury. Objectives: The objective of the study was to document the clinical and operative findings as well as the treatment outcome among our patients who underwent neck exploration for penetrating neck injuries. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients who had neck exploration for penetrating neck injury between January 2012 and December 2018 was done. Results: Thirty-five patients all of whom had surgical neck exploration were included. The age ranged from 15 to 62 years with a male: female of 7.8:1. The mean age was 30.7 years with standard deviation of ± 12.5 years and the peak age of occurrence of 20–29 years. The mechanism of injury was commonly arrow injury in 9 (25.7%) and suicidal cutthroat in 7 (20%) patients. Thirty-two (91.4%) patients presented with stable vital signs. Zone II neck injuries were most prevalent, seen in 23 (65.7%) patients. Laryngeal injury in 7 (20%) and soft-tissue injury in 7 (20%) of the patients were the most common intraoperative findings. The complication rate of 17.1% with a mortality rate of 2.9% was recorded. There was a statistically significant association between the presence of vascular injury and the development of complications after exploration (Chi-square = 5.666, P = 0.017). It was also a significant positive predictor of complication following neck exploration (odds ratio = 0.017, P = 0.048). Conclusion: Male young adults were most involved, commonly from arrow and stab injuries. Although laryngeal and soft-tissue injuries were predominant, vascular injuries were most associated with postoperative complications.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Unilateral hypoplastic pelvic ectopic kidney presenting as a cold abscess: A case report p. 55
Olalekan John Adepoju, Michael Chukwugoziem Nweke, Oluwafunmilayo Yewande Soneye, Clement Abu Okolo, Adegbolahan Jacob Fakoya
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_27_19  
Renal ectopia, even though a benign condition, presents diagnostic challenges when its complications arise. Cold abscess in an abnormally sited kidney may, therefore, create a diagnostic conundrum for the clinician. We present the case of a 55-year-old male who had a suppurating ectopic kidney that mimicked an abdominal visceral mitotic lesion necessitating initial laparotomy, reviewed the literature, and highlighted the need to consider the differential diagnosis, especially in patients who have been referred from peripheral hospitals where generous antibiotic therapy has been instituted. We also recommend undertaking a preoperative split renal scintigraphy where available, especially when nephrectomy is considered.
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Anal melanoma: A case report of a rare and lethal malignancy in a suburban Nigerian Teaching Hospital p. 59
Samuel Oluwafemi Fatudimu, Oladipo Omoseebi, Olakunle Fatai Babalola, Saheed Olatunde Akanni
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_63_19  
The aim of this report is to highlight the challenges involved in the diagnosis and treatment of anal melanoma in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. It is a case report of an 84-year-old man who was managed for anal malignant melanoma. Despite inadequate investigative tools and less radical surgical treatment, the survival period of the index patient was comparable to the median survival quoted in the literature. Despite its rarity, mucosal melanomas also occur in the tropics. Prompt diagnosis, adequate imaging, and standardized treatment may improve its outlook in the nearest future.
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Ectopic kidney mimicking appendicular abscess p. 63
Danny Darlington Carbin Joseph, Jagatheswaran Chinnathambi, Arunkumar Jamburaj
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_49_19  
Ectopic kidney is a congenital anomaly of renal position, which is commonly asymptomatic. Symptoms arising from pelvic kidneys can closely mimic pathological processes of nearby organs and vice versa. We report an 18-year-old girl who presented with acute onset of a painful lump in the right iliac fossa. Although the clinical features mimicked an appendicular abscess, the judicious use of cross-sectional imaging aided in the proper diagnosis. Pyonephrosis of a right-sided lumbar kidney was confirmed on further imaging and nephrectomy was performed. This case has been presented to highlight the significance of renal imaging in patients suspected of an appendicular abscess.
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Challenging airway management in a patient with retrosternal goiter presenting in respiratory distress p. 66
Babatunde B Osinaike, Alaba O Ogunsiji, Olufunke C Joseph
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_58_19  
A number of options exist for patients with anticipated difficult intubation on account of a retrosternal goiter compressing on the trachea. The chosen technique(s) to secure the airway in this delicate situation often depends on the location and degree of airway obstruction, available resources/facilities, and an anesthetist's experience and preferences. We report the case of a 68-year-old woman with severe airway obstruction from a retrosternal goiter coming for total thyroidectomy. Airway management started with an awake fiber-optic intubation, proceeded to a tracheostomy and finally to use of a rigid bronchoscope following failure of the earlier techniques to achieve adequate ventilation.
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Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma of the small intestine presenting as spontaneous hemoperitoneum – A rare case report p. 71
Raveena Karthikeyan, H Sakthivel, N Rajkumar, K Srinivasan
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_55_19  
Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is an extremely rare neoplasm arising from the antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. It usually involves the lymph nodes, and extranodal sites are rarely affected. Here, we report a first known case of spontaneous hemoperitoneum caused by the rupture of IDCS of the small bowel. A 61-year-old male presented with complaints of abdominal pain and fever for 3 days and breathlessness for 1 day. Ultrasound abdomen revealed a 15 cm × 7 cm heterogeneous collection with thick septations in the periumbilical region. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage revealed hemoperitoneum and gangrenous bowel. Emergency laprotomy was done and it revealed a friable mass arising from the ileum. Resection of 2 ft of the ileum and double-barrel ileostomy was done. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a positivity of S100 and leukocyte common antigen). A diagnosis of IDCS was made. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery and planned for postoperative chemotherapy.
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Giant schwannoma on thenar aspect of the hand: A rare case report p. 75
Rituparna Dasgupta, Bikram Kumar
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_40_19  
Schwannomas are the most common benign tumors of peripheral nerves but are rare in adults. They have an extremely slow rate of growth before the onset of symptoms such as pain, paresthesia, and tingling. Giant schwannomas of the extremities can significantly affect the quality of life. With a correct diagnosis, the tumor can be extirpated with preservation of nerve function and a very low risk of recurrence. A case of a symptomatic giant schwannoma on thenar eminence of the right hand in an adult male is discussed in this report.
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Left paraduodenal hernia: A cause of double intestinal obstruction p. 78
Isaac Assam Udo, Victor Obong
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_43_20  
Paraduodenal hernias are of congenital origin and may present with symptoms and signs of small intestinal obstruction. These hernias are rare in our practice, and a definitive preoperative diagnosis is often not made as the symptoms are not specific. Early assessment and prompt and adequate resuscitation and surgery obviate the risk of strangulation and intestinal resection. This report highlights a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in a young male who presents with all the classical features of obstruction: colicky abdominal pain, distension, vomiting, and inability to pass stool or flatus. The diagnosis of paraduodenal hernia was made intraoperatively. We do not routinely request for barium examination or abdominal computed tomography scan in acute abdominal pain. These modalities can suggest a preoperative diagnosis.
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A self-insertion of an uncommon urethrovesical foreign body for autoerotism p. 81
Friday Emeakpor Ogbetere, Eshiobo Irekpita
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_6_20  
Apart from iatrogenic causes, many of the foreign bodies in the bladder and urethra are self-inserted through the urethra as a result of psychiatric disturbances, sexual gratification, or erotic curiosity while intoxicated. Despite the reports on the presentation of urethrovesical foreign bodies in the medical literature, the insertion of foreign bodies through the urethra for the purpose of erotic satisfaction remains an enigma. Here, we report a case of a knotted earphone jack as an urethrovesical foreign body inserted for erotic reason by a 32-year-old man with no history of psychiatric disturbances. He could not retrieve it, and the bladder foreign body remained in this position for about 8 h. He was referred to the accident and emergency unit of our hospital, and open surgery was performed to retrieve it.
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Contralateral axillary metastasis in breast carcinoma: Case report and review of literature p. 84
Harish Neelamraju Lakshmi, Mohit Sharma, Ketul S Puj, Shashank J Pandya
DOI:10.4103/njs.NJS_9_20  
The clinical dilemma of management of isolated contralateral axillary metastasis (CAM) in carcinoma breast remains unsolved. We report a case of metachronous contralateral left axillary metastasis in a 54-year-old postmenopausal woman, its management, and review of literature. After ruling out distant metastasis and occult primary in the opposite breast, curative treatment was planned. She underwent left axillary lymph node dissection which on histopathology showed metastatic carcinoma. Management of CAM with curative or palliative intent and whether to consider them as locoregional or distant metastasis remains controversial. CAM may occur due to the locoregional spread of disease, and hence, curative intent of treatment should be offered to these patients.
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