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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-4

Profile of chest trauma in Zaria Nigeria: A prelminary report

Cardiothoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
S A Edaigbini
Cardiothoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Aims and Objectives Trauma continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality world over. This study is aimed at the patterns of presentation and the outcome of management. Materials and Methods A prospective study of trauma patients admitted to Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital through the Accident and Emergency units was commenced in January 2008.This preliminary report is for the period of 27months.The clinical history, physical examination and outcome of management recorded in a predesigned proforma, were analysed with SPSS 15 and the patients were followed up in the surgical outpatient department. Results A total of 4784 patients (3143 men and 1641 women) were admitted during this period for trauma. There were a total of 628(13.13%) deaths. Of the 42 consecutive patients identified with chest trauma35 (83.3%) were males and 7(16.7%) were females. The age range was from 5-75years and the mean age was 35.4years, while the most affected ages were in the range of 20 to 49years. Blunt injury constituted 71.4% and penetrating injury constituted 28.6%. Road traffic accident was responsible for 61.9%, stab injury 21.4%, falls 7.1%, gunshot injury 4.8%, impalement 2.4% and animal attack also 2.4%. The average time taken between accident and admission was 31hours,40minutes and 12seconds while the average duration of hospital stay was 16.10 days. The injury pattern included rib fracture(s) (23.8%), hemopneumothorax (14.3%), hemothorax (7.1%), pneumothorax (4.8%), combinations of chest injuries (7.1%), chest laceration 7.1%, bruises 11.9%, lung contusion 4.8%, subcutaneous empyema 2.4%, flail chest 4.8% and no specific injury (11.9%). Associated injuries included head injury (63.6%), orthopaedic injury (27.3%) and combinations (abdominal, head, orthopaedic (9.1%). The fatality of road traffic accident was 36.8%. No patient was attended to by paramedics at the scene of accident while 21.9% of the patients had pre-hospital resuscitation in peripheral clinics before admission. The transfusion requirement was 14.3%. One patient (2.4%) required a median sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass, 54.8% required tube thoracostomy while 42.9% had general resuscitation /non-operative intervention. Only one (2.4%) required ICU care. The complication rate was 4.8%. The mortality rate was 2.4%. Only 7(16.7%) patients were seen beyond the first outpatient clinic appointment. Conclusion Most patients arriving at the hospital survived, requiring general resuscitation or simple tube thoracostomy with few complications. Mortalities from trauma and the cause of death at the site of accident are often not accounted for due to non-presentation to the hospital and lack of autopsy for those that present.

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